The greater the number of similarities, the greater the probability that the analogy is modern data from taphonomy, experimental archaeology, and ethnoarchaeology to explain why particular natural processes or human behaviors can be inferred from particular material remains.Middle-level theory relies on the principle of uniformitarianism.The three major pathways discriminate against carbon-13 in different ways, therefore similarly aged plants that use different pathways can produce different radiocarbon ages. 129): Samples from organisms that took in carbon from a source that was depleted of or enriched in 14C relative to the atmosphere may return ages that are considerably older or younger than they actually are.

) More or less homogeneous or gradational material, visually separable from other levels by a discrete change in the character of the material—texture, compactness, color, rock, organic content—and/or by a sharp break in the nature of deposition.

Context matters because information comes from what artifacts are associated with each other, with features, and with particular strata.

Geoarchaeology applies the concepts and methods of the geosciences to archaeological research to assist in determining a site’s age and its formation, including all the human and natural processes that work together to create an archaeological site.

The systemic context refers to artifacts as they are being used or manipulated by people; the archaeological context refers to natural processes that act on artifacts and features once they are deposited in the ground.

A typology’s usefulness is judged relative to the question it is used to answer.

Seeking changes across space and time—so-called space-time systematics—archaeologists can find important patterns in the form of material culture.

It’s not enough to know that an artifact came from a particular site; we need to know how it relates to everything else found at the site.

Diverse excavation strategies respond in part to different preservation conditions, constraints, and objectives in order to record provenience.

We construct these groups through an objective, explicit, and replicable process.

We recognize that there is no single “correct” typology.

Mousterian artifacts are frequently associated with Neanderthal human remains.p.