In this section, we consider the models most often used in basic research and how these have fared in the drug discovery process.

BC cell lines have found extensive use in the investigation of proliferation, apoptosis, migration and the tumour-initiating cell (TIC) phenomenon.

Adultbi cam-87Adultbi cam-81

This complexity brings specific considerations, particularly in the need for high-throughput drug combination screens and deep genomic characterisation of models to enable biomarker discovery.

We conclude by reflecting on our own experiences in developing an integrated pharmacogenomic pipeline for breast cancer drug discovery using PDTX cells (or PDTCs).

BC is a collection of diseases with distinct biological traits and clinical outcomes.

Thus, no individual model would be expected to completely recapitulate human BC in its entirety.

Herein, we review current breast cancer models and their use in the drug discovery process, before discussing best practices for developing a highly annotated cohort of PDTX models.

We describe the importance of extensive multidimensional molecular and functional characterisation of models and combination drug–drug screens to identify complex biomarkers of drug resistance and response.

Herein, we discuss the role of PDTX models in the BC drug discovery process.

We begin by considering currently available models of BC and their uses in the drug discovery process before presenting the argument for increased use of models accurately reflecting the complexity of human malignancies.

Nevertheless, multiple models of BC have been established over the years, both patient derived and artificially engineered.

For a full overview of these models, including their respective limitations, the reader is directed to an excellent review by Vargo-Gogola and Rosen (Vargo-gogola & Rosen 2007).

Many have turned to patient-derived tumour xenografts (PDTXs) (Whittle .